Legal tech in Russia -legal framework for Lawyers

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LegalTech School | Совместный образовательный проект Deloitte Legal и Skolkovo LegalTech

Legal tech in Russia -legal framework for Lawyers

LegalTech School предназначена как для юристов, которые хотят быть в курсе последних разработок в области развития технологий, так и для IT-специалистов, интересующихся развитием технологий для бизнеса и государственного управления.

Вас ожидают подкасты, вебинары, участие в публичных обсуждениях и дискуссионных клубах, а также тесты на закрепление полученных знаний. Лучшие специалисты Deloitte Legal, Skolkovo LegalTech и приглашенные гости расскажут о цифровой трансформации и цифровизации юридической профессии, технологиях для юридической функции с позиции разработчика и пользователя.

Что думают о цифровой трансформации и цифровизации юристы?

Роботы и искусственный интеллект: далекое будущее или почти реальность? Эти и иные сценарии цифровизации правосудия в новом выпуске подкаста «Deloitte. Точка зрения» обсудили Елена Авакян, член Совета ФПА РФ и рабочих групп государственной программы «Цифровая экономика» центров компетенций «Сколково», и Анна Костыра, управляющий партнер Deloitte Legal в СНГ.

Онлайн-гостем Анны Костыра, управляющего партнера Deloitte Legal в СНГ, стала основатель LegalTech-стартапа Nlogic (входит в «ИКС Холдинг»), член совета директоров компании «МегаФон» и президент Ассоциации участников рынка больших данных Анна Серебряникова.

Из подкаста вы узнаете, как, внедряя цифровую трансформацию и LegalTech, корпоративный юрист превращается из специалиста практики, поддерживающей бизнес, в полноценного делового партнера.

На примере своих собственных и сторонних компаний ведущая и гостья рассказали об успешном опыте, когда специалисты объединили базовые юридические компетенции с новыми технологиями и пришли к выводу, что у юристов есть шанс догнать своих коллег из других функций, уже прошедших путь цифровой трансформации.

Чем руководствуются создатели программ? С какими трудностями им приходится сталкиваться в процессе работы? Как обосновать целесообразность внедрения LegalTech и как помочь заказчику осуществить внутреннюю продажу?

Какой должна быть электронная подпись, чтобы все захотели отказаться от бумажного документооборота в пользу электронного?Управляющий партнер Deloitte Legal в СНГ Анна Костыра, директор по цифровым продуктам «Делойта», СНГ Дмитрий Беспалов и старший юрист Deloitte Legal в СНГ Анастасия Матвеева побеседовали о преимуществах и рисках перехода бизнеса к использованию электронной цифровой подписи и электронному документообороту, а также о собственном и клиентском опыте с директором по цифровой трансформации фонда «Сколково» Игорем Соловьёвым и директором удостоверяющего центра Edisoft Эдуардом Кимом в рамках специального проекта LegalTech School, созданного Deloitte Legal совместно с фондом «Сколково».

Автоматизация бизнес-процессов стала неотъемлемой частью работы бухгалтерии, департаментов финансов, логистики, управления персоналом и даже дизайна и маркетинга.

Возникает вопрос: можно ли алгоритмизировать юридическую деятельность и выполнять часть рутинных работ с помощью искусственного интеллекта (ИИ), ускорив прохождение стандартных процедур и освободив время юристов для саморазвития и повышения творческой составляющей профессии? Известны ли на российском рынке успешные примеры автоматизации юридических процессов с использованием ИИ? И сможет ли ИИ в ближайшем будущем самостоятельно составлять юридические заключения? О передовых практиках в управлении юридическими процессами управляющий партнер Deloitte Legal в СНГ Анна Костыра и директор по цифровым продуктам «Делойта» в СНГ Дмитрий Беспалов поговорили с генеральным директором «ABBYY Россия» Дмитрием Шушкиным и директором по корпоративным программам акселерации фонда «Сколково» Антоном Прониным в десятом выпуске подкаста «Deloitte. Точка зрения», записанного в рамках специального проекта LegalTech School, созданного Deloitte Legal совместно с фондом «Сколково».

Роботизация процессов в юридической сфере — это отнюдь не революция, а лишь закономерный шаг эволюционного процесса, уверен гость нашего нового выпуска подкаста серии Legal Tech School Фёдор Краснов, директор департамента информационных систем управления Naumen.

О том, почему искусственный интеллект, машинное обучение и нейросети плотно вошли в обиход энтузиастов с предпринимательским мышлением и стали работающими инструментами, которые помогают автоматизировать рутинные операции, с Фёдором поговорил Дмитрий Беспалов, директор по цифровым технологиям Департамента налогов и права «Делойта» в СНГ.

Каким мы видим будущее юриспруденции?

Как договоры в картинках помогают бизнесу улучшать продажи? Почему использование примитивного языка иконок выгодно для всех? Что такое дизайн-мышление в юриспруденции? И почему юрист-невидимка ― новый супергерой? О смарт-контрактах, гуманистической роли права и эмпатии в профессии юриста поговорили Мария Дорошенко, генеральный директор стартапа LegalPics, и эксперты Deloitte Legal в СНГ ― управляющий партнер Анна Костыра и старший юрист Михаил Стеценко.

Как настроить процессы и выстроить взаимодействие юридической команды?

Специалисты Deloitte Legal в области построения юридических процессов и LegalTech, а также директор по корпоративным программам акселерации фонда «Сколково» Антон Пронин провели вебинар, где рассказали, как юридическим командам перейти на удаленную работу с сохранением производительности, а также о том, как такие инструменты помогут улучшить качество работы и повысить прозрачность внутренних процессов.

На данном вебинаре вы узнаете, зачем описывать процессы юридического подразделения и как оценить зрелость юридических процессов, а также познакомитесь с разными моделями управления юридическими командами и подходами к организации проектной работы, в частности, с особенностями управления удаленными и распределенными командами, техническими инструментами и способами поддержки комфортного рабочего климата в командах.

Результаты опроса «Делойта», проведенного в 2019 году, свидетельствуют о существенном росте значимости комплаенс-функции в российских компаниях.

Нестандартная текущая ситуация послужила маркером, с помощью которого можно оценить эффективность построения и зрелость комплаенс-функции компании, а также ее готовность реагировать на внешние вызовы.

В рамках вебинара специалисты «Делойта» поделились опытом оценки «комплаентности» бизнеса и управления функцией комплаенса, а также рассказали, как с помощью технологий можно повысить эффективность комплаенс-функции.

Специалисты «Делойта» в области построения юридических процессов и LegalTech провели для вас вебинар, где обсудили пять самых распространенных ошибок при использовании конструкторов документов. Мы рассказали о тонкостях их внедрения и поделились практическими рекомендациями, которые помогут вам избежать ошибок и эффективно использовать существующие у вас инструменты.

Что думают о LegalTech юристы, уже внедрившие его? В какой момент принимается решение о необходимости автоматизации, что являлось триггером к внедрению и насколько результат соответствует ожиданиям?

Робот с человеческим лицом, юрист как бизнес-партнер и покупатель, который всегда прав, в новом выпуске подкаста Legal Tech School.

О том, как юридический чат-бот для сотрудников клиентского сервиса компании Inditex помогает продавцам повышать уровень обслуживания клиентов бренда, рассказал Артем Подшибякин, руководитель юридического департамента группы компаний Inditex Russia в беседе с Дмитрием Беспаловым, директором по цифровым технологиям Департамента налогов и права «Делойта» в СНГ.


Legal tech in Russia -legal framework for Lawyers

Financial technology (“FinTech”) industry is booming all around the world, while regulators are trying to cope with emerging technologies without hampering innovation at the same time.

Being in its infancy, the Russian market may present an untapped opportunity for both national and global FinTech players.

This attractiveness mainly stems from the fact that Russia is the ninth largest country in the world by population and the first one in Europe by the number of Internet users.

FinTech industry, in turn, heavily depends on regulations, with some innovative companies often itching the boundaries of available regulatory frameworks. In this context, FinTech players looking at the Russian market are ever more frequently seeking guidance on existing regulations and prospective policies. As always, the departure point is whether there are any regulations at all.

Below, we cover regulatory aspects of the selected FinTech segments, such as crowdfunding, P2P lending, robo-advising, cryptocurrencies and some other.

Thereafter follows an overview of regulatory topics that touch upon most of the FinTech business models, such as licensing and securities laws.

A brief audit of available state incentives for FinTech companies in Russia is provided at the end.

(1) Crowdfunding

There is no specifc regulation of crowdfunding in Russia. Companies are experimenting with different models at the moment. There are both pure crowdfunding platforms (where funds are provided in exchange for symbolic tokens, without expectation of any profits) and crowdinvesting platforms (where funds are provided in exchange for a stake in the underlying business).

Crowdfunding is ly to remain unregulated in the future. Crowdinvesting is different, and the Central Bank of Russia (the “CBR”) has already voiced its concerns about the business model and promised to take a closer look.

(2) Crowdinvesting

In contrast to crowdfunding, crowdinvesting implies that investors obtain a valuable interest in a project with the expectation of profits in the future. Several crowdinvesting schemes have been tested recently. Two of them are currently being implemented on a sustainable basis.

  1. Online-to-offline. In this scheme, a platform would solicit projects looking for investments and aggregate such projects on its online marketplace. Potential investors would then be able to review suggested projects and decide whether they want to invest. If the investment transaction goes ahead, the platform would collect its fees. Since most of the investee companies are registered as limited liability companies (LLC), actual transactions take place offlinebecause the transfer of interest in LLCs is subject to notary certification (thus, the name “online-to-offline”). Platforms themselves are not subject to any licensing formalities, in contrast to the US, where, for instance, AngelList is registered as an investment adviser. StartTrack is the most active player in this segment on the Russian market.
  2. Unit investment funds. This is a relative new scheme implemented in the domain of real estate investments. Under this scheme, a platform acts as an intermediary between investors and real estate owners. The platform selects promising real estate and makes it available for investors online. Once investors have committed enough capital to acquire a real estate, the platform would then arrange the formation of a ‘closed unitary investment fund’, separate for each real estate object and run by a professional investment management company. Following the fund formation and acquisition of the real estate, units in the fund are distributed among the investors. The platform would charge a one-time subscription fee and continuous management fees. This scheme is similar to well-known foreign projects, such as RealtyShares and RealtyMogul. AKTIVO is the first company in Russia implementing this scheme. What makes this arrangement particularly attractive for real estate investments is that potential investors do not have to be qualified, as opposed to investors in funds aimed at venture investments, for example.

(3) Automated Investment Tools / Robo-Advisors

Un in some other countries, there are no rules in Russia applicable to companies or individuals providing investment advice, as long as they do not handle securities. The latter would require a broker-dealer license.

In contrast, an ‘investment adviser’ in the US is a broadly defined term covering any person who, for compensation, is engaged in the business of advising others on securities under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

In the context of FinTech, this regulation of investment advisers is particularly relevant for a growing industry of the so-called ‘robo-advisers’ or automated investment tools.

Indeed, this segment of FinTech business is one of the most promising areas, given its potential for scalability. At least in a perfect world, a sound investment advice should be no different across the borders.

Neither does a comfortable taxi ride, which makes many investors think that the automated investment industry is prone to “uberization.”

On an international scale, such companies as Betterment, Wealthfront, Acorns and many others are already active in the segment of automated investments. In Russia, several banks are offering automated advising services and a few startups are testing the waters, such as FinEx Financial Autopilot.

(4) Consumer Lending

Consumer lending performed on a regular basis is a regulated activity in Russia. Consumer credits and loans are deemed to be provided on a regular basis if issued no less than four times during a calendar year. Consumer loans may be issued either by banks or microfinancial organizations.

Banks are subject to licensing requirements, whereas microfinancial organizations are subject to less burdensome registration and capital requirements. The essence of regulations in this area is to ensure consumer protection. This takes the form of interest caps and requirements relating to specific terms of consumer loan agreements.

(5) P2P Lending

So far, P2P lending is not subject to any specific regulation. This may change, however, in the future, since the CBR has already committed itself to regulating the industry. It is ly that regulation would be similar to the one in foreign jurisdictions, where the focus is on capital stability of an intermediary (P2P platform) and proper consumer protection, such as disclosure.

(6) Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrencies are not regulated in Russia yet. This does not mean, however, that the regulator remained silent when the public interest in Bitcoin soared during the peak prices of 2013-2014.

Then, the CBR emphasized that the issuance of ‘monetary surrogates’ in Russia is illegal (without clarifying what ‘monetary surrogates’ are), whereas the Prosecutor General warned of a ‘speculative nature’ of cryptocurrencies.

This was soon followed by a draft law introducing the definition of ‘monetary surrogates’ and criminalizing any transactions with them with prison sentences up to six years. The bill has not become a law, marking a swift shift in regulatory approaches to cryptocurrencies.

According to the most recent statements from the officials, the Russian Parliament is currently working out various approaches to put cryptocurrencies within the legal framework.

Four approaches are currently under investigation, by virtue of which cryptocurrencies will become: (1) monetary instruments, (2) financial instruments, (3) commodities, or (4) monetary surrogates.

Whatever the chosen approach is, the devil will be in the details at the intersection with adjacent areas of law (such securities regulations, taxes and currency control).

As to blockchain, a technology underpinning Bitcoin and most other cryptocurrencies, the Russian regulatory framework lacks any provisions in its respect either. However, one should expect that the anonymous character of transactions executed via certain blockchains may raise regulatory concerns in the area of KYC and AML.

(7) Binary Options

Binary option is a financial instrument where the payout depends entirely on the outcome of yes/no proposition. The industry is having good times at the moment, with new binary option operators appearing every now and then. The approach of regulators, however, is not so binary, but rather is a spectrum: from explicit ban to the lack of regulation.

Between these are two dominant approaches: binary options are either treated as gambling, such is in the UK where they fall under the UK Gambling Commission’s supervision, or regarded as a financial instrument, such as in the US and Cyprus.

Nevertheless, consequences of both approaches are often the same – an operator must either has gambling or broker-dealer license.

As to Russia, binary options are not regulated. Applying existing regulatory frameworks may lead to classifying binary options as either a form gambling or a type of financial instrument.

A more balanced approach, from our perspective, is to conclude that the binary options market, the FOREX market until recently, simply lies beyond the reach of current regulatory frameworks.

The CBR has not yet taken any stance on binary options; however, it did announce in its regulatory strategy for 2016-2018 that it would provide guidance on this issue. This announcement was made in the document’s section related to consumer protection and gambling.

Licensing Requirements

One of the strategic drivers for the development of FinTech industry is the idea that companies offering selected financial services, without undertaking full-scale banking activities, are not subject to licensing or other burdensome requirements. This logic equally applies to the Russian market, where the provision of most of traditional financial services is subject to licensing.

Securities Laws

Russian securities laws provide for an exhaustive list of securities. Anything that does not fall within the list is not subject to issuance and disclosure requirements.

The list includes classic securities, such as shares of stock, bonds, bills of exchange, bills of lading, etc.

This approach significantly differs from that in the US, where an open-ended list of securities is set forth in the Securities Act of 1933 and includes such catch-all terms as “investment contracts” and “evidence of indebtedness.”

With the advent of new financial instruments, the “exhaustive list” approach may not capture innovative offerings.

For example, the Russian FinTech market has already witnessed a public offering of options for future shares of stock placed by a company in anticipation of it going public in a few years.

This would have ly qualified as a public offering under the US securities law with all regulatory consequences, but passed undetected in Russia.

Foreign Securities in Russia

Foreign FinTech organizations looking for expansion into the Russian market should be aware of the following rules. First, foreign securities may be publicly offered in Russia only upon admission by the CBR.

Unadmitted foreign securities, as well as foreign financial instruments not qualified as securities may not be publicly offered in Russia.

The question for a foreign FinTech company would then be whether its instruments or services qualify as foreign securities or financial instruments.

Second, foreign brokers, dealers and other financial organizations are not allowed to perform or offer their services on the financial markets to the public (to an unlimited range of persons) in Russia. Administrative fines for the breach of this ban range from RUB 800,000 to 1,000,000 (approx. USD 15,000). The main question, therefore, for a FinTech company looking to offer its services in Russia would be whether its services fall within the scope of services provided by


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